There are also many German dialects that differ substantially from standard German, not only in pronunciation but also in grammar. Archaeological evidence suggests that about bce a relatively uniform Germanic people was located in southern Scandinavia and along the North Sea and Baltic coasts from what is now the Netherlands to the Vistula River.
Prescriptive pronunciation guides of that time considered northern German pronunciation to be the standard. In Germanic these were reduced to indicative, imperative, and subjunctive moods; a full active voice plus passive found only in Gothic; three persons; full singular and plural forms and dual forms found only in Gothic; and one infinitive present and two participles present and past.
During the past 50 years, great changes have taken place in the fundamental and theoretical study of the German language.
The development of a gerund. Different combination of certain dialects of Middle High German replaced the Latin that had been widely used in official writings of that time. Language spoke by Vandals is much less known, limited to names and some sentences that are enough to propose it was more Eastern Germanic looking than Western Germanic looking.
The earliest existing records in German date back to about The following innovations are common to the Northwest Germanic languages all but Gothic: For example, in West Germanic all consonants except r preceded by a short vowel and followed by j were geminated doubledbut in North Germanic only velars k, g were affected: At this time, people in urban northern Germanywho spoke dialects very different from Standard German, learnt it almost as a foreign language and tried to pronounce it as close to the spelling as possible.
Bibliography[ edit ] Salmons, Joseph. Until the midth century it was essentially the language of townspeople throughout most of the Empire. During the 18th century a number of outstanding writers gave modern standard German its modern form — the language of church and state, education and literature.
These are called the Germanic weak verbs ; the remaining verbs with vowel ablaut are the Germanic strong verbs. Agramand Ljubljana German: During the 18th cent.
Standard German orthography subsequently went essentially unrevised untilwhen the German spelling reform of was officially promulgated by government representatives of GermanyAustriaLiechtensteinand Switzerland. Midth-century scholars, using the findings of archaeology and the methods of geographic linguistics, attempted to correct the distortions of this family-tree model by noting also the linguistic features shared by two or more dialect areas.
The Baltic Sea Area Adapted from http: Some words with etymologies that are difficult to link to other Indo-European families but with variants that appear in almost all Germanic languages. The Proto-Indo-European tense-aspect system present, imperfect, aorist, perfect was reshaped to a single tense contrast between present and past.
The first dictionary of the Brothers Grimmwhich was issued in 16 parts between andremains the most comprehensive guide to the lexicon of the German language.
Grammar Declensions Proto-Germanic kept the Proto-Indo-European system of three genders masculine, feminine, neuter and three numbers singular, dual, pluralthough the dual was becoming obsolete. During the early Middle Ages, the West Germanic languages were separated by the insular development of Middle English on one hand and by the High German consonant shift on the continent on the other, resulting in Upper German and Low Saxonwith graded intermediate Central German varieties.
By the midth century there was a simplification of the inflectional grammar of German, caused by the reduction of vowels in unstressed syllables. At this time, people in urban northern Germanywho spoke dialects very different from Standard German, learnt it almost as a foreign language and tried to pronounce it as close to the spelling as possible.
The Proto-Indo-European tense-aspect system present, imperfect, aorist, perfect was reshaped to a single tense contrast between present and past. Some linguistic features associated with these dialect divisions are the following: It is important to distinguish innovations from cases of linguistic conservatism.
Pressburgwere originally settled during the Habsburg period and were primarily German at that time. Roman Catholics rejected Luther's translation at first and tried to create their own Catholic standard gemeines Deutsch — which, however, differed from 'Protestant German' only in some minor details.
In addition to these general changes, there were two special ones. Labiovelar consonants become plain velar when non-initial. In the first period there was no standard language.
The neighbour languages within the dialect continuum of the West Germanic languages were Middle Dutch in the West and Middle High German in the South, later substituted by Early New High German. Middle Low German was the lingua franca of the Hanseatic League, spoken all. German language, German Deutsch, official language of both Germany and Austria and one of the three official languages of Switzerland.
German belongs to the West Germanic group of the Indo-European language family, along with English, Frisian, and Dutch (Netherlandic, Flemish). The History of Germanic Languages by Renata Urban page 5 14th & 15th century During this period, English became more standardized (at (late medieval period) least south of the Scottish border).
From studying the major time periods of the German language, one might also find enjoyment in postulating the history of other related languages, including English. During the past 50 years, great changes have taken place in the fundamental and theoretical study of the German language.
Germanic languages: Germanic languages, branch of the Indo-European language family consisting of the West Germanic, North Germanic, and East Germanic groups. German is one of the largest groups of Indo-Germanic languages.
It is used as the official language of Germany, Austria and Liechtenstein, and is a co-official language in Switzerland, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the European Union.History of germanic languages